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Ontology of the Steel Industry Case Study

Final version — 31 May 2010

This version:
http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel
Latest version:
http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel
Last Update:
31 May 2010
Editors:
Luis Polo, Fundación CTIC
Diego Díaz, ArcelorMittal
Authors:
Pablo Valledor, ArcelorMittal
Diego Berrueta, Fundación CTIC
Emilio Rubiera, Fundación CTIC
Contributors:
See acknowledgements

Abstract

This document describes the OWL ontology for the Steel Industry case study of the ONTORULE project.

This document contains the reference documentation for each entity (class, property, instance) of the ontology. It also includes some companion text with pertinent explanations about the domain concepts.

Status of this Document

This is the current version of the Steel Industry Case Study ontology.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
    1. Coils, defects, phenomena and sampling points
    2. Physical variables
    3. Product type
  2. Ontology at a glance
  3. Cross-reference of classes and properties

Appendixes

  1. Normative References
  2. Changes in this version
  3. Acknowledgements

1. Introduction

This document describes the OWL ontology for the Steel Industry case study of the ONTORULE project.

1.1 Coils, defects, phenomena and sampling points

Coils, defects, phenomena and sampling points are at the core of this ontology. Their relationships are not straightfoward. A coil is a physical object which is a metallurgical product. A sampling point is an abstract concept which represents a given location within a coil where some physical parameters are measured. Both defects and phenomena are deviations from the product specifications, which arise at a given product. A key difference between a defect and a phenomenon is that the former is located at a certain sampling point and the latter affects the coil as a whole.

As the coil is sampled at discrete locations along one axis (X), the location of each sampling point (sp) is defined by the length from the start of the coil strip to the sampling point. The distance between a sampling point and the next one is called the length scope (ls) of the first sampling point. Defects (d), if present, are associated to a sampling point. The following diagram illustrates these relationships.

Diagram representing an unrolled coil and highlighting the occurrence of sampling points and defects along the coil

1.2 Physical variables

These are some of the physical variables that are taken into account:

1.3 Product type

Different kinds of steel are usually identified in the industry by their steel grade, which is usually codified as an alphanumeric code. In the context of this ontology, however, a coarser classification is used, which involves a hierarchy of product types. Product types are identified by shorter alphanumeric codes.

2. Ontology at a glance

An alphabetical index of the ontology terms, by class (concepts) and by property (relationships, attributes), is given below. All the terms are hyperlinked to their detailed description for quick reference.

Classes: Action, Clinching, Coil, Defect, DualPhase, HSLA, InterstitialFree, MechanicalDefect, MechanicalPhenomenon, Order, ParameterDefect, Phenomenon, ProductType, Rephosphorised, SamplingPoint, SkinPassElongationDefect, SkinPassElongationPhenomenon, SurfaceAspectDefect, SurfaceAspectPhenomenon, TemperatureDefect, TemperaturePhenomenon, YieldStrengthDefect, YieldStrengthPhenomenon,

Properties: action, avgFlattenerElongation, avgSkinPassElongation, avgTemperature, coilIdentifier, coilProperty, derivesFrom, flattenerElongation, hasPhenomenon, hasSamplingPoint, inCoil, lengthScope, location, locationOf, order, phenomenonOf, position, productTypeCode, samplingPointProperty, skinPassElongation, skinPassElongationMax, skinPassElongationMin, steelGrade, targetParameter, temperature, temperatureMax, temperatureMin, thicknessTarget, weightMax, weightMin, widthTarget, yieldStrength, yieldStrengthMax, yieldStrengthMin, zincThicknessTarget,

Instances: A200, B102, B105, C114, C116, C119, D012, D071, evaluation, K012, keepAssignment, repair, scrap,


The following diagram illustrates some of the concepts and properties of the Steel Case Study ontology.

Diagram showing some of the concepts and their relationships

3. Cross-reference of classes and properties

Class: steel:Action

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#Action

Action - This category comprises the actions to be done with the product after the system has completed its evaluation

in-range-of:
steel:action

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Class: steel:Clinching

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#Clinching

Clinching - Clinching steels are those obtained by a non-continuous method of joining whereby the points of joinage are produced by punching two or more steel sheets together simultaneously by means of a punch and die.

sub-class-of:
steel:ProductType

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Class: steel:Defect

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#Defect

An imperfection or defect detected in the coil. -

in-domain-of:
steel:location
in-range-of:
steel:derivesFrom
steel:locationOf

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Class: steel:DualPhase

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#DualPhase

Dual-phase steel - Dual-phase steel (DPA) is a high-strength steel that has a ferrite and martensitic microstructure. DPA starts as a low or medium carbon steel and is quenched from a temperature above A1 but below A3 on a continuous cooling transformation diagram. This results in a microstructure consisting of a soft ferrite matrix containing islands of martensite as the secondary phase (martensite increases the tensile strength). It features advantages such as low yield strength;low yield to tensile strength ratio (yield strength / tensile strength = 0.5); high initial strain hardening rates; good uniform elongation; high strain rate sensitivity (the faster it is crushed the more energy it absorbs); and good fatigue resistance.

sub-class-of:
steel:ProductType

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Class: steel:HSLA

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#HSLA

High-strength low-alloy steel - High-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steel is a type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel. HSLA steels vary from other steels in that they aren't made to meet a specific chemical composition, but rather to specific mechanical properties. They have a carbon content between 0.05–0.25% to retain formability and weldability.

sub-class-of:
steel:ProductType

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Class: steel:InterstitialFree

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#InterstitialFree

Intertitial free metallurgy steel - Steels designed to provide an excellent combination of drawability and mechanical strength based on their specific interstitial free (IF) metallurgy. These steels are hardened by adding manganese, silicon and phosphorous in solid solution to the ferrite. The metallurgy of IF steels optimizes their drawability.

sub-class-of:
steel:ProductType

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Class: steel:MechanicalDefect

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#MechanicalDefect

Mechanical defect - A defect having to do with the mechanical process.

sub-class-of:
steel:Defect

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Class: steel:MechanicalPhenomenon

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#MechanicalPhenomenon

Mechanical phenomenon - An effect detected in the coil related to the mechanical process.

sub-class-of:
steel:Phenomenon

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Class: steel:Order

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#Order

Order - An order defines the target specifications of the product. The order also specifies the tolerance allowed with respect to the target parameters.

in-domain-of:
steel:targetParameter
steel:widthTarget
steel:yieldStrengthMax
steel:yieldStrengthMin
in-range-of:
steel:order

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Class: steel:ParameterDefect

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#ParameterDefect

Parameter defect - It is a defect having to do with a deviation of the measured skin-pass elongation, flattener elongation or temperature from the specified values.

sub-class-of:
steel:MechanicalDefect

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Class: steel:Phenomenon

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#Phenomenon

Phenomenon - An effect detected in the coil, based on the identified defects along the coil sampling points.

in-domain-of:
steel:derivesFrom
steel:phenomenonOf
in-range-of:
steel:hasPhenomenon

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Class: steel:ProductType

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#ProductType

Product type - The type identifies the kind of steel, defined by a set of physical and chemical properties

in-domain-of:
steel:productTypeCode
in-range-of:
steel:steelGrade

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Class: steel:Rephosphorised

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#Rephosphorised

Rephosphorised steel - It is a kind of steel that contains phosphorus as its main alloying agent.

sub-class-of:
steel:ProductType

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Class: steel:SamplingPoint

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#SamplingPoint

Sampling point - A sampling point is an abstract concept which represents a given location within a coil where some physical parameters are measured.

in-domain-of:
steel:inCoil
steel:locationOf
steel:flattenerElongation
steel:lengthScope
steel:position
steel:samplingPointProperty
steel:skinPassElongation
steel:temperature
steel:yieldStrength
in-range-of:
steel:hasSamplingPoint
steel:location

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Class: steel:SkinPassElongationDefect

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#SkinPassElongationDefect

Skin-pass elongation defect - A skin-pass elongation defect has to do with any deviation of the measured skin-pass elongation from the requirements for the product.

sub-class-of:
steel:MechanicalDefect

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Class: steel:SkinPassElongationPhenomenon

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#SkinPassElongationPhenomenon

Skin-pass elongation phenomenon - An effect detected in the coil related to the skin-pass elongation.

sub-class-of:
steel:MechanicalPhenomenon

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Class: steel:SurfaceAspectDefect

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#SurfaceAspectDefect

Surface aspect defect - A defect found in the surface of the coil.

sub-class-of:
steel:Defect

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Class: steel:SurfaceAspectPhenomenon

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#SurfaceAspectPhenomenon

Surface aspect phenomenon - An effect detected in the coil specifically on the surface of the product.

sub-class-of:
steel:Phenomenon

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Class: steel:TemperatureDefect

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#TemperatureDefect

Temperature defect - It is a defect having to do with temperature issues. At the exit of the furnace it is necessary to check the temperature ranges of the steel strip, depending on the maximum and minimum end of heating temperature set by the order (measured in ºC) and the steel grade.

sub-class-of:
steel:MechanicalDefect

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Class: steel:TemperaturePhenomenon

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#TemperaturePhenomenon

Temperature phenomenon - An effect detected in the coil related to the temperature.

sub-class-of:
steel:MechanicalPhenomenon

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Class: steel:YieldStrengthDefect

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#YieldStrengthDefect

Yield strength defect - It is a mechanical defect having to do with the target yield strength. A defect of this category is identified if the yield strength is outside of the target range at any point.

sub-class-of:
steel:MechanicalDefect

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Class: steel:YieldStrengthPhenomenon

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#YieldStrengthPhenomenon

Yield strength phenomenon - An effect detected in the coil related to the yield strength.

sub-class-of:
steel:MechanicalPhenomenon

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Property: steel:action

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#action

action - This is the final assignment of a coil to an order (a customer)

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topObjectProperty
Domain:
steel:Coil
Range:
steel:Action

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Property: steel:avgFlattenerElongation

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#avgFlattenerElongation

average flattener elongation -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:coilProperty
Domain:
steel:Coil

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Property: steel:avgSkinPassElongation

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#avgSkinPassElongation

average skin-pass elongation -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:coilProperty
Domain:
steel:Coil

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Property: steel:avgTemperature

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#avgTemperature

average temperature -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:coilProperty
Domain:
steel:Coil

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Property: steel:coilIdentifier

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#coilIdentifier

coil identifier - Unique identifier of the product.

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:coilProperty
Domain:
steel:Coil
Range:
xsd:integer

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Property: steel:coilProperty

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#coilProperty

coil property -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topDataProperty
Domain:
steel:Coil

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Property: steel:derivesFrom

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#derivesFrom

derives from - A given phenomenon derives from a set of defects.

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topObjectProperty
Domain:
steel:Phenomenon
Range:
steel:Defect

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Property: steel:flattenerElongation

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#flattenerElongation

flattener elongation -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:samplingPointProperty
Domain:
steel:SamplingPoint

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Property: steel:hasPhenomenon

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#hasPhenomenon

has phenomenon -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topObjectProperty
Domain:
steel:Coil
Range:
steel:Phenomenon

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Property: steel:hasSamplingPoint

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#hasSamplingPoint

has sampling point -

Inverse:
steel:inCoil
OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topObjectProperty
Domain:
steel:Coil
Range:
steel:SamplingPoint

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Property: steel:inCoil

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#inCoil

in coil - This property links sampling points, used by the system to measure some physical parameters such as the yield strength, to the product (a given coil).

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topObjectProperty
Domain:
steel:SamplingPoint
Range:
steel:Coil

[back to top]

Property: steel:lengthScope

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#lengthScope

length scope - Length of the coil in which the sampling applies. It is associated to a single coil sampling point.

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:samplingPointProperty
Domain:
steel:SamplingPoint
Range:
xsd:float

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Property: steel:location

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#location

location - A defect is detected comparing coil data with order specifications in sampling points. Thus a defect is relative to a position in the coil.

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topObjectProperty
Domain:
steel:Defect
Range:
steel:SamplingPoint

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Property: steel:locationOf

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#locationOf

location of -

Inverse:
steel:location
OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topObjectProperty
Domain:
steel:SamplingPoint
Range:
steel:Defect

[back to top]

Property: steel:order

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#order

order - This is the initial assignment of a coil to an order (a customer). It will define the production goal to be validated by the rule system.

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topObjectProperty
Domain:
steel:Coil
Range:
steel:Order

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Property: steel:phenomenonOf

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#phenomenonOf

phenomenon of -

Inverse:
steel:hasPhenomenon
OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topObjectProperty
Domain:
steel:Phenomenon
Range:
steel:Coil

[back to top]

Property: steel:position

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#position

position - Position of the coil where a sampling is performed. There is a sampling point each 10 meters from the head to the tail of the coil, so the position indicates the distance in meters from the head to a given sampling point.

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:samplingPointProperty
Domain:
steel:SamplingPoint
Range:
xsd:float

[back to top]

Property: steel:productTypeCode

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#productTypeCode

product type code -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topDataProperty
Domain:
steel:ProductType

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Property: steel:samplingPointProperty

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#samplingPointProperty

sampling point property -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topDataProperty
Domain:
steel:SamplingPoint

[back to top]

Property: steel:skinPassElongation

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#skinPassElongation

skin-pass elongation -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:samplingPointProperty
Domain:
steel:SamplingPoint

[back to top]

Property: steel:skinPassElongationMax

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#skinPassElongationMax

skin-pass elongation maximum -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:targetParameter

[back to top]

Property: steel:skinPassElongationMin

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#skinPassElongationMin

skin-pass elongation minimum -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:targetParameter

[back to top]

Property: steel:steelGrade

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#steelGrade

steel grade -

OWL Type:
ObjectProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topObjectProperty
Domain:
steel:Coil
Range:
steel:ProductType

[back to top]

Property: steel:targetParameter

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#targetParameter

target parameter -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
owl:topDataProperty
Domain:
steel:Order

[back to top]

Property: steel:temperature

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#temperature

temperature -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:samplingPointProperty
Domain:
steel:SamplingPoint

[back to top]

Property: steel:temperatureMax

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#temperatureMax

temperature maximum -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:targetParameter

[back to top]

Property: steel:temperatureMin

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#temperatureMin

temperature minimum -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:targetParameter

[back to top]

Property: steel:thicknessTarget

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#thicknessTarget

thickness target -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:targetParameter

[back to top]

Property: steel:weightMax

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#weightMax

weight maximum -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:targetParameter

[back to top]

Property: steel:weightMin

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#weightMin

weight minimum -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:targetParameter

[back to top]

Property: steel:widthTarget

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#widthTarget

width target -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:targetParameter
Domain:
steel:Order

[back to top]

Property: steel:yieldStrength

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#yieldStrength

yield strength - This parameter is calculated in every sampling point along the coil. So the yieldStrength is associated with a given sampling point to allow the comparison with the yieldStrength value of the target specified in the order. Deviations from the target imply a defect in the coil.

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:samplingPointProperty
Domain:
steel:SamplingPoint
Range:
xsd:float

[back to top]

Property: steel:yieldStrengthMax

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#yieldStrengthMax

yield strength upper tolerance -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:targetParameter
Domain:
steel:Order
Range:
xsd:float

[back to top]

Property: steel:yieldStrengthMin

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#yieldStrengthMin

yield strength lower tolerance -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:targetParameter
Domain:
steel:Order
Range:
xsd:float

[back to top]

Property: steel:zincThicknessTarget

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#zincThicknessTarget

zinc thickness target -

OWL Type:
DatatypeProperty
sub-property-of:
steel:targetParameter

[back to top]

Instance: steel:evaluation

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#evaluation

evaluation - The coil is sent to experts when it is not clear whether it meets order requirements

RDF Type:
owl:Thing
steel:Action

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Instance: steel:keepAssignment

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#keepAssignment

Keep assignment -

RDF Type:
steel:Action
owl:Thing

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Instance: steel:repair

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#repair

repair - When the quality of coil is low but it could be repaired, it is sent again to the production line.

RDF Type:
owl:Thing
steel:Action

[back to top]

Instance: steel:scrap

URI: http://ontorule-project.eu/resources/steel#scrap

scrap - When the quality of the coil is very low, it is sent to scrap

RDF Type:
steel:Action
owl:Thing

[back to top]

A. References

PROD-DEF
ArcelorMittal Product Catalogue - EU edition 2008 (cf. Product Definition)
ORDER-ASS
ArcelorMittal internal report on 'Order assignment at Galvanisation Line'

B. Changes in this version

31/05/2010
Initial version of the specification

C. Acknowledgements

This work is part of the ONTORULE project (ONTOlogies meet business RULEs), a large-scale integrating project (IP) partially funded by the European Union's 7th Framework Programmen under the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Call 3 (ICT-231875).

The consortium of the project is composed by the following partners:

For futher information, please visit the official webpage of the project: http://ontorule-project.eu/

The authors want to explicitely acknowledge the contributions made by François Lévy (Universite Paris 13) and Antonia Schwichtenberg (ontoprise).

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