Concrete Implementation

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Within ONTORULE an abstract platform has been developed describing the ideal way on how to implement applications using business knowledge in form of ontologies and business rules. The implemented components are implementations of the abstract components demonstrating the feasibility of the theoretical approach. The business scenarios demonstrate the application of some of the implemented components within a concrete business case. The theoretical work provides theories that have been only partial or not been implemented but are possible candidates for implementations of abstract components.


Business Scenarios

The business scenarios are implemented using the implemented components of the Specification of the ONTORULE platform

Implemented Components

The following list lists the implemented components used within the business scenarios described above. They are concrete implementations of the abstract components:

Implementing Vendor Implemented Abstract Component Component Description
FUB ORM2OWL Translator/Reasoner Free University of Bozen-Bolzano An ORM2 to OWL2 translator tool allows to translate a given ORM2 knowledge base expressed in ORM2 formal syntax into OWL2 knowledge base. Additionally it provides a consistency check of the given schema and allows to check the validity of a ORM2 statement with respect to the given ORM2 knowledge base.
OntoStudio Graphical Rule Editor Ontoprise GmbH Rule authoring The graphical rule editor of OntoStudio uses the UML paradigm for modelling rules. The intention was to use a paradigm many users are familiar with. In the following we describe the functionality of the rule editor. Further information can be found in the OntoStudio user manual.
OntoStudio HTML/RDFa support Ontoprise GmbH The component imports RDF annotations from an HTML file. It preserves the dependency to the HTML file and shows the annotations within the HTML file. Having the ontology used for annotation one can link the RDFa import and the annotations and navigate between the two structures.
OntoStudio Rule Search Ontoprise GmbH The extension of OntoStudio allows searching for rules; (ObjectLogic) constraints and (ObjectLogic) queries within OntoStudio.

One defines the ontology terms that should occure within the rules to be searched for. The result will be a list of rules; constraints and queries that contain the terms.

With this functionality it is easy to find rules that depend on certain ontology elements.
OntoStudio Validation Ontoprise GmbH Static ontology checking
Static rule checking
The component uses a set of ontologies and rules in order to identify anomalies within the ontology and rule combination. The component explains the anomalies found. Some of the anomalies might not be an issue and can be ignored. However; others might hint on a bad modelling paradigm.
Ontoprise OWLRL in ObjectLogic Ontoprise GmbH Rule execution Inferencing component on top of OntoBroker(ObjectLogic) implementing the OWL RL profile.
Ontoprise SKOS Vocabulary Management Ontoprise GmbH Based on the vocabulary management SemanticXpress of ontoprise a SKOS vocabulary management has been realised. It allows importing and maintaining SKOS vocabularies.
Paris13 SemEx Université de Paris 13 Candidate rule extraction from NL
Text annotation
Text querying
Paris13 SemEx is a rule editor. It implements three abstract components of the ONTORULE platform: Candidate rule extraction from NL; Text annotation and Text querying. SemEx is part of the ONTORULE foreground and has been developed by Paris13. It is available for download from the D1.4 deliverable.
Paris13 Terminae Université de Paris 13 Ontology extraction from NL
Text annotation
Terminae is a text-based interactive ontology acquisition tool based on the Eclipse platform. It implements two abstract components of the ONTORULE platform Ontology extraction from NL and Text annotation. It has been delivered in D1.1
Parrot Fundación CTIC Onto/rule set documentation Parrot is an OWL and RIF documentation service
TUWIEN DReW Technische Universität Wien Query answering DReW is:
  • A prototype DL reasoner over LDL+ ontologies: taking as input a conjunctive query and an ontology in OWL 2 syntax extended for the complex role expressions of LDL+
    DReW checks whether the ontology is in the LDL+ fragment. If it is
    it is translated according to the format suitable for the specified Datalog reasoner (DLV in our case).
  • A prototype reasoner for dl-programs over LDL+ ontologies under well-founded semantics.
TUWIEN KAOS Technische Universität Wien Query answering KAOS is the first reasoner supporting Conjunctive Queries (CQs) over the expressive Horn-SHIQ ontologies. It has been developed in cooperation with the Austrian funded FWF Project "Reasoning in Hybrid Knowledge Bases" P20840.
TUWIEN MOR Technische Universität Wien Query answering MOR (MergeOntologyRule) is a prototype reasoner for evaluating stratified dl-programs over DL-Lite ontologies under the well-founded semantics using a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS).

Theoretical Components

The following list lists the components for which theories have been developed within ONTORULE.

Implementing Vendor Component Description
FUB Combining Production Rules and Ontologies: Tight and Loose Coupling Free University of Bozen-Bolzano Combining Production Rules and Ontologies: 'Formula-based' and 'Possible Models' semantics for Loose Coupling approach. Integrated semantics and Production Rules systems axiomatization in fixpoint logic (FPL) for Tight Coupling approach.
FUB Embedding of propositional production systems into μ- calculus, and first-order production systems into fixpoint logic Free University of Bozen-Bolzano μ- calculus based embedding of propositional Production Rules systems
and fixpoint logic embedding of FO Production Rules systems. The component aims at enabling further investigation of the combinations with ontologies
as well as static analysis of the Production Rules systems.
FUB First-order deontic-alethic logic (FODAL) Free University of Bozen-Bolzano FODAL is a first-order deontic-alethic logic
FUB Generalized Ontology-based Production Systems Free University of Bozen-Bolzano A generalized ontology-based production systems (GOPSs) is defined
together with a powerful verification query language for production systems static analysis. Lite-GOPSs
a particular class of GOPSs based on the use of a light-weight ontology language (DL-Lite_A)
a light-weight ontology query language (EQL-Lite(UCQ))
and a tractable semantics for updates over Description Logic ontologies are also presented.
FUB Production systems and ontologies integration via Transaction Logic with Partially Defined Actions Free University of Bozen-Bolzano The component consists of: (i) a new semantics for production systems augmented with DL ontologies that includes looping-rules
and can handle inconsistency; (ii) a sound embedding of the combination of PS and rule-based ontologies into the TR-PAD transaction logic; and (iii) an extension of TR-PAD with default negation.
TUWIEN Paraconsistent Hybrid Theories Technische Universität Wien a semantics for hybrid theories that allows to draw non-trivial conclusions in case of inconsistency
TUWIEN Stepping Approach for DL-Programs Technische Universität Wien a framework is provided that allows for stepwise debugging of DL-Programs
TUWIEN f-hybrid Knowledge Bases Technische Universität Wien f-hybrid knowledge bases are a tightly-coupled combination of logical rules and ontologies. The logical rule component is an FoLP program
while the ontology part is a SHOQ ontology.

Supported Formats

The description of the ONTORULE abstract platform (ONTORULE deliverable D6.1 Specification of the ONTORULE platform) is based on several exchange formats. These formats usually are based on existing standards or developed formats within ONTORULE. The following list describes the exchange files.

Format Description Format Homepage
BAL The Business Action Language (BAL) of the JRules BRMS. It provides a syntax for expressing business rules. The BAL defines a simple if-then syntax (IF some set of conditions are true THEN a set of actions are to be taken)
and provides constructs for expressing business rule conditions and actions.
BPMN Business Process Model and Notation is an OMG standard to describe business processes. The most important concepts that can be described are the actors; or participants. Actors can execute a process; sub process; activity or decision (called gateway in BPMN). An actor can send a message to another actor. An actor can read from or write to a data store (called data base by nearly all other people) as well as a data object. BPMN is a graphical notation.
EARL EARL is a RDF based language for representing machine readable data about evaluations of resources.
HTML HTML is a markup language to structure text and multimedia content and links to other pages. HTML documents are the basis of the World Wide Web.
IRL The ILOG Rule Language (IRL) for the JRules BRMS. It is the executable form of the rule artifacts. In the ruleset
all rule artifacts are translated to the IRL. For example
each row of a decision table is generated as a rule in IRL. Each action column corresponds to an IRL action in the corresponding rule.
ORM “Object-Role Modeling (ORM) is a fact-oriented approach for modeling; transforming; and querying business domain information in terms of the underlying facts of interest; where all facts and rules may be verbalized in language readily understandable by non-technical users of those business domains.” (Terry Halpin 2009).
OWL The Web Ontology Language OWL is an ontology language for the Semantic Web that extends RDF Schema and is based on Description Logics. To RDF Schema it adds features such as class intersection
union and complement; local property restrictions; cardinality restrictions; and reflexive; symmetric; functional
transitive and inverse properties.
ObjectLogic ObjectLogic is a newly developed ontology language which is based on the development of F-logic (Kifer et al. 1995) and it's new development (Angele et al. 2008) F-logic forum. It is developed at Ontoprise GmbH.
  • Michael Kifer; Georg Lausen; and James Wu. Logical foundations of objectoriented and frame-based languages. J. ACM
    42(4):741–843. 1995.
  • Jürgen Angele; Michael Kifer; and Georg Lausen. Ontologies in f-logic. In Handbook on Ontologies. 2009.
RDF RDF is a standard model for data interchange on the Web defined by W3C. It is equivalent to direct; labelled graphs. RDF also defines an XML-based syntax for that model (RDF/XML); although alternatives have been proposed and are widely used.
RDF Schema RDF Schema is a vocabulary description language for the Resource Description Format (RDF). It defines a vocabulary for modeling classes and properties (i.e. a lightweight ontology) in RDF. In particular it offers the following modeling features: a) Classes and class hierarchies b) Properties and property hierarchies; c) Property domain and range restrictions.
RIF RIF is a W3C recommendation for representing and interchanging rules within the Semantic Web
RIF-OBLD RIF-OBLD is a RIF-BLD dialect implemented by OntoBroker and OntoStudio.
RIF-PRD RIF-PRD is the production rule dialect of the W3C rule interchange format
a standard XML serialization format for production rule languages.
SBVR Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Business Rules is a OMG standard. It defines the vocabulary and rules for documenting the semantics of business vocabularies
business facts.
SKOS SKOS is a RDF/RDF Schema based formal language for encoding thesauri or controlled vocabularies.
SPARQL SPARQL is a graph based query language for RDF
TELIX TELIX (Text Encoding and Linguistic Information eXchange) is an OWL vocabulary for the representation of linguistic information as RDF graphs.
XML XML is a markup language to encode data formats.

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